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Schiøler-gruppen

Danske terrorister i tysk tjeneste

1944-1945

By Jonas Lind og Lasse Bruun Jonassen

Abstract

In September 1944, during the German occupation of Denmark, the Danish police was arrested and deported.


This left a vacuum in law enforcement that in part was filled by the establishment of the Hilfspolizei (Hipo). Hipo was placed under an organisation called Efterretningstjenesten (ET), which was established by the German occupying forces but consisted of Danish personnel.

ET and Hipo did almost nothing to fight ordinary crime but were established to fight the Danish resistant movement, which in the last years of the German occupation became increasingly active and violent as the future German defeat became evident. Loosely connected to ET was a small number of more or less independent terror groups, that also fought the resistant movement with assassinations, explosions etc. This thesis is a study of how one of these groups, Schiøler-gruppen, was established, how it acted during its existence from the fall of 1944 to the German surrender May 5th 1945 and why the members of the group acted as they did.

The study uses Social Identity Theory as the theoretical framework and especially draws on a specific study of some of the perpetrators from the Holocaust – Ordinary men – Reserve police battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland by Christopher Browning. The study concludes that the members of Schiøler-gruppen all came from national socialist organizations. The members were all highly ideologically motivated – from their membership of DNSAP, Schalburgkorpset etc. – to work in the group. A part of the group served in the Waffen SS and was likely to have been brutalized by their experiences.

In general a process of brutalization – generated in part by the violent opposition to the Danish resistant movement that led to a vendetta-like conflict where a killing from one side where answered by a killing from the other – is crucial to the understanding of why the group acted as it did, and during the last part of the occupation went through a process of radicalization. Additionally internal processes like peer-pressure (pressures of conformity) and a macho culture played a role in their ability to act as violently, as they did.

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Opdateret: 20-09-11